วันเสาร์ที่ 2 มกราคม พ.ศ. 2553

History of Computers - Computers and Technology

The scope and the use of computers in the world are so large they are hard to ignore any more. Computers appear to us so many ways that not many times we see them as they actually are. People in connection with a computer when they buy their morning coffee from the machine. As she drove to work, the lights, which so often hinder us from computers in an attempt to control the travel speed. Take it or not, the computer has invaded ourLife.

The origins and roots of computers started out as many other inventions and technologies have in the past. It developed from a relatively simple idea and developed a plan to perform tasks faster and easier. The first basic kind of computers were designed to do just that; Directions!. They conducted basic mathematical functions such as multiplication and division, and the results will be displayed in a variety of methods. Some computer results displayed in a binary representation of electronicLamps. Binary means that only zeros and ones, then, lit lamps represented ones and zeros unlit lamps represented. The irony is that people need to translate another mathematical function to binary to decimal to make it readable to the user.

One of the first computer was called ENIAC. It was a huge, monstrous size nearly that of a standard car. It contained electronic tubes, heavy cable cross-sections, angle iron and knife-switch, to name just a few of the namesComponents. It is now difficult to believe that computers have developed into large suitcases microcomputers of the 1990s.

Computer with time evolved into less archaic looking devices near the end of the 1960s. Its size was that of a small car they were reduced and the processing of information on segments faster than older models. Most computers were due at the time as "computers" on the fact that many computers were linked together to perform a particularFunction. The primary users of these types of computers were military installations and large companies such as Bell, AT & T, General Electric and Boeing. Organizations such as these provide the means to have these technologies. However Demanded by operation of this extensive computer intelligence and human resources. The average person could not have fathomed trying to operate and use the million-dollar processors.

The United States was attributed the title of the pioneers of the computer. ItOnly in the early 1970s that people began to like Japan and the United Kingdom, using its own technology for the development of the computer. This resulted in the newer components and smaller computers. The deployment and operation of computers had been in a form that people can treat of average intelligence, and without developing tamper too much noise. If the economies of other nations began to compete with the United States, the computer industry expanded by a largeRate. Computer prices dropped dramatically and more and more affordable, the average household size.

Like the invention of the wheel, the computer here for the operation and use of computers in today's times stay.The the 1990s has become so easy and simple that we could have taken perhaps too much for granted. Almost everything in society requires the use of a form of education or training. Many people say that the typewriter was the forerunner of the computer. The typewriter definitelyrequisite training and experience to operate them at an efficient use and protection. Children are taught basic computer skills in school, to prepare them for the future development of the computer age.

The history of computers began in about 2000 years ago, lined up at the birth of the abacus, a wooden frame, the two horizontal wires with beads on them. When these beads are moved around, depending on the programming rules by the user, all regular arithmetic savedProblems can be done. Another important invention around the same time, the astrolabe, used for navigation.

Blaise Pascal is usually credited for building the first digital computer in 1642. He added numbers entered with dials help and was to his father, a publican. In 1671, Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz invented a computer that was built in 1694. One might add, and for a few things that multiply. Leibnitz invented a special stop transmissions forIntroducing the addend digits, and that is still being used.

The prototypes of Pascal and Leibniz were not used in many places, and as strange, until a little more than a century later, when Thomas of Colmar (AKA Charles Xavier Thomas), the first successful mechanical calculator created that could add, subtract, multiply and divide. Many improved desktop followed by many inventors, so that from about 1890 until the series of improvements, including: AccumulationPartial results, storage and automatic reentry of past results (A memory function), and the expression of the results. Each of these required manual installation. These improvements were mainly made for commercial users and not for the needs of science.

While Thomas of Colmar's desktop computer, a number of very interesting developments in computers was developed in Cambridge, England, by Charles Babbage began (store from which the computer "named Babbage") is a math teacherProfessor. In 1812, Babbage realized that there were many long calculations, especially to create the necessary mathematical tables, really a series of predictable actions that were constantly repeated. From this he suspected that it be possible to do this automatically. He began to design an automatic mechanical calculating machine, which he called a difference engine. By 1822, he had to demonstrate a working model. Financial assistance from the British government has been reached and began BabbagePreparation of a difference engine in 1823. It was intended to be steam powered and fully automatic, including the printing of the offer resulting tables and by a fixed instruction program.

The difference engine, despite its limited adaptability and applicability, was really a great step forward. Babbage continued to work there for the next 10 years, but in 1833 he lost interest because he thought he had a better idea, to build what is today as a general goalFull program-controlled, automatic mechanical digital computer. Babbage called this idea is an analytical engine. The ideas of this design showed a lot of foresight, although this was not until a century later be estimated.

The plans for this engine required an identical decimal computers on numbers of 50 decimal digits (or words) and with a storage capacity (memory) of 1,000 such places. The built-in operations should include everything that a modern general --Purpose computer would need, including the all important Conditional Control Transfer Capability, which commands are executed in any order, not just the order in which they had been programmed.

Because people can see it has quite a large amount of intelligence and strength to come, in 1990 the style and the use of computers. It has been assumed that computers are a natural development in society and they take for granted. Just as people have learned to drive a car, it also needsSkill and learn to use a computer.

Computers in society more difficult to understand. Exactly what they consisted of and what actions they have performed very strongly dependent on the type of computer. To say that a person had a typical computer does not necessarily constrain what became the capabilities of the computer. Computer styles and types are covered so many different functions and actions, that it was difficult to enumerate them all. The original computer from the 1940s wereeasy to define for their own purposes, when they invented the first time. She primarily performed mathematical functions many times faster than any person could be identified. However, the development of many kinds and types of computers that have an important impact on a clearly defined purpose was dependent created.

The computers in the 1990s came about in three groups, consisting of mainframe, network devices and PCs. Mainframe computers were very large and had the modulesWays of processing and storage of large amounts of data in the form of numbers and words. Mainframes were the first to develop types of computers in the 1940s. Users of these types of computers from banking companies, large companies and authorities submitted. They usually were very expensive, but the cost to take at least five to ten years. They too must be well trained and experienced workforce that are operated and maintained. Larry Wulforst, for in his book, "BreakthroughComputer Age, describes the old mainframes of the 1940s compared with those of the 1990s by speculating, "... the contrast to the sound of the sputtering engine power the first flights of the Wright brothers at Kitty Hawk and the roar of powerful engines Cape Canaveral launch pad. " End of the first part.

Works Cited

Wulforst, Harry. Breakthrough to the Computer Age. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1982.

Palferman, Jon and Doron Swades. The Dream Machine. London:BBC Books, 1991.

Campbell-Kelly, Martin and William Aspray. Computer, A History of the Information Machine. New York: Basic Books, 1996.